از نمايش مايمتيك به روايت دايجتيك: خوانش انتقادي از نخستين ترجمه هاي فارسي از نمايشنامه هاي شكسپير در ايران
From a Mimetic Play to a Diegetic Narrative: A Political Reading of Discursive Function of the Early Translation of Shakespearean Plays in Iran
The translation venture was crucial in the early twentieth century Iran. In proceeding years of the Constitutional Revolution (1906), the modernist movement and the yearning for social and cultural renewal made Iranian elites initiate acquaintances with the forward-looking European countries. One of the ingenious undertakings was to translate the marvel classics of western literature, in order to breathe a fresh air into the suppressed and obsolete social discourse of the time. Drama featured robust hostility and resistance to repressive and restraint tyranny. William Shakespeare's plays were among the seminal literary works to be translated into Persian. The early translations of Shakespearean plays, to some extent, had conformed to the original mimetic structure of drama. In 1942, Ali Asghar Hekmat, a recognized politician in the reign of Pahlavi I, offered a quite distinctive version of translation of Shakespearean plays in his Panj Hekāyat az Ǟsāre William Shakespeare. He replaced the mimetic dramatic structure with the diegetic narrative and employed the conventions of ancient Persian storytelling (Naqqālī) to address the majority of unknowing audience. At that time Naqqālī as grounded on the monologic narrator's storytelling proved robust to drama which was based on dialogue and characters' linguistic interaction. The fundamental substitution of plays with tales by Hekmat, first of all, cost the erasure of dialogue which is the essential component of drama. Despite the arduous efforts of modernists to rejuvenate the sullied orders, the old storytelling proved potent and vigorous. Drama as a modern genre did not find any notable space for its true articulation in early modern Iran. Having examined the application of Naqqālī motifs in Hekmat's work, the present study is aimed to explore the discursive reasons that underlie Hekmat's manipulation of Shakespearean plays into diegetic stories. The cultural materialist reading of Panj Hekāyat… would evaluate the social and political grounds that contributed to the binary opposition of diegetic to mimetic. The old residual literary discourse of storytelling was essentially opposed to the emergent modernist movements in the early twentieth century Iran. The residual indeed played a significant part in the sustaining of the dominant power that hindered the modern manifestations of social justice and liberty. The present work is to study the functions of residual, emergent and the dominant in the introduction and reception of western genre of drama to Iranian social and cultural discourse.
drama, translation, Shakespeare, Hekmat, cultural materialism