گفتمان زنانه: تحليل سبك شناختي گفتگو در رمان هاي «اِما» (جين آستين)، «شِرلي» (شارلوت برونته)، «شمال و جنوب» (اليزابت گاسكل) و «دور از اجتماع خشمگين» (توماس هاردي)
Feminine Discourse: A Stylistic Analysis of Conversation in Austen’s Emma, Bronte’s Shirley, Gaskell’s North & South, and Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd
Leaning primarily on two stylistic tools provided by John Searle’s Speech Acts theory and Geoffrey Leech’s Politeness Maxims, the present research is an analysis of conversation between cross-sex lead characters in Jane Austen’s Emma (1816), Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley (1849), Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South (1855) and Thomas Hardy’s Far From the Madding Crowd (1874). The study aims to clarify the contribution of the characters’ linguistic performances to the portrayal of their psychological tendencies, the building of communicational structures, and the enactment of personal agency of (especially female) characters through challenging and subverting various speech acts and mitigation tactics. Three significant dialogues from different stages of each narrative have been selected to help provide answers for such queries like: What are the major differences in the verbal politeness behavior and speech act manipulation typical of the women and men under discussion? How do the characters’ individual communicational styles undergo modifications by the end of the novels? And who ends up adjusting to whom in oppositional exchanges? Such pragmatic analysis can help verify, refute, or contribute more precise details on prior literary intuitions of traditional criticism about characterization and character relationship. Placid and proper as the drawing room conversations of Victorian characters may sometimes be assumed to have been, a detailed discourse analysis uncovers the fact that a hostile undercurrent battle of “impoliteness” and assertiveness is still being waged between the affectionate couple, sometimes right through to the conciliatory “happy” endings of these narratives.