پسا پسامدرنيسم در برابر پسامدرنيسم و مدرنيسم: هويت و ارتباط در سه گانه ديويد فاستر والاس
Post Post-modernism versus Post-modernism and Modernism: Identity and Communication in David Foster Wallace’s Trilogy
Postmodernism and Post postmodernism have dominated culture, literature, etc. since the late-20th-century to the present time. Despite the fact that Post postmodernism seems to be emerging from and reacting to Postmodernism, in basic features, they contradict each other. Focusing on David Foster Wallace’s (1962-2008) trilogy—The Broom of the System 1 (1987), Infinite Jest 2 (1996) and The Pale King 3 (2011), the aim of this thesis is to study these three novels under the critical gates of the philosopher, Fredric Jameson, and the critics such as William Foster Wallace, Stephen Burn, Stuart Sim and Nicolai Timmer to open up the concepts of identity and communication , at first for a man who is trapped in the dictated and alienated world of Modernism and Post-modernism and then for a man who is in search of a remedy in the age of Post post-modernism. Such thinkers believe that in the age of Modernism, man, having no identity of his own, functions as a cog of the machine controlled by capitalism through especially mass media, a condition which is most likely to lead to dictatorship. In Postmodernism, or the period known as the late capitalism by Fredric Jameson, they believe that a sort of fragmentation rather than totality is intended to control the life of the people through again mass media in a process known as consumerism. However, In Post postmodernism, a new sort of humanism seems to be emerging by David Foster Wallace who shows not only the pain but also the cure. In fact, the subjectivity of man is given a niche, and also he is given a voice to express his thought, like the opportunity he has gained in the social networks like Facebook and Telegram, which have made it paradoxically possible for him to have a sort of sharing among the fragmented individuals. In other words, Post postmodernism responds to the postmodern sense of disintegration; however, it does not mean that Post postmodernism tends towards the wholeness and totality intended by Modernism. In fact every fragmented man can be an active agent, communicator, and finally a producer to bring meaning and discipline back to the life rather than a sole passive watcher, reader, and one way communicator as presented in the postmodern works. Through the process of his trilogy, Wallace shows that the post postmodern man has succeeded in adopting such a sort of new identity and also creating a new opportunity to express himself in order that he might be able to come out of the modern and postmodern passivity and seclusion to be able to communicate with others, especially those with whom he feels he has common interest.
Modernism, Postmodernism, Post Post-modernism, Identity, Communication